Sunday, 29 January 2017

Difference between Automation and Mechanization- Leading industrial automation companies in India providing PLC SCADA DCS training in Chennai. Best PLC training center in Chennai. Automation in India,

Difference between Automation and Mechanization:

The revolution industry on 18th century has made a fundamental change in the production method and production develops into a round about process because of mechanization. Machines and equipments office are a great value to the modern management because these are labor and time saving devices. The mechanical devices adoption not only creates for greater economy and efficiency, but also reduces human labor for less tiresome and less monotonous. The practice of machine guarantees accuracy and operation speed, and decreases monotony and work tension. The process mechanization has created to save time, relieve monotony in work, promote accuracy in work, and decrease the frauds chances. 

The automation indicates substitute of human labor by the machines utilization. The mechanical operations or doing of office work with less human participation are called as automation. The mechanization and automation are not identical and as such automation contains something more than mechanization. The information recording, processing and controlling by mechanical and electronic devices is called as automation. The automation utilization is created for compiling reports, data processing, and doing accounting work. The electronic data processing and computer technology are the best models of automation. 

Automation is the machines application to tasks once executed by human beings or more and more to tasks that would otherwise be impracticable. Even though the mechanization term is frequently utilized to refer to the simple substitute of human labor by machines, automation usually involves the machines integration into a system of self-governing. Automation has developed those areas which have been established, and there is barely a characteristic of modern life that has been unchanged by it. Though the difference between mechanization and automation may be difficult to describe in practice, the difference between society of mechanized and automated is more clearly detained; the automation introduction has brought around a new and separate stage in the industrial civilization development. Human beings have attempted to move some of the labor burden to devices of mechanized for as long as they have operated. 

The correct automation, as different from mechanization, did not approach about until the feedback systems development; it is the occurrence of these systems which serves to differentiate the two. Feedback submits to the machine ability to control itself. Throughout a system of feedback or loop, a machine checks its own output, evaluated it with a standards set saved, alongside with instructions and regulates its performance consequently. Every automated system or machine needs 4 basic components: they are power source, decisions element, control element, and sensing mechanisms. 

The power source can be electric generator or batteries which provide an automated system with the energy required to reach its wanted task. The decision element evaluates the data provided by the sensing element with standards saved in the program, this step is frequently performed by a computer. The sensing mechanism allows the system to calculate some the output property. Sensing mechanisms are such as photoelectric cells, X-ray machines, thermocouples, and electrical meters and the properties they may calculate comprise color, weight, dimensions, pressure, temperature, or electrical resistance. 



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PLC Design Solutions :


In PLC programming, there are some PLC design methods that we can use. Speaking about PLC programming, it is known as a method for creating the instructions, calculations, and sequence. What we should know is that the PLC plays an important role in automation industry. Knowing how powerful PLC can be, it is not really surprising that PLCs are getting more and more popular. For those who have been programming PLCs, it is important to apply the most suitable design/method. For more information, let’s learn about what PLC is and other aspects related with PLCs such as PLC design. PLC Design in PLC programming There is no doubt that finding the best PLC design solutions will be the key whether or not we can optimize the use of PLCs. The fact is PLC programming has been used in many areas. Creating a system that is effective, efficient and does a good job when dealing with many tasks is what PLC can do. There are some benefits we can get when we can find the most suitable PLC design methods. Some of these benefits are: • Increase flexibility in manufacturing • Decrease production costs • Improve productivity • Increase product quality With these benefits, it is quite reasonable that we should find the best PLC design methods. PLCs have become quite popular especially in automation industry due to some advantages offered by PLCs. For those who want to use a PLC, it is important to learn on how to program a PLC. With some benefits offered by PLC, it is not really surprising that PLC has become a very popular choice for those who want to increase the productivity. However, when it comes to PLC, it is very important to learn on how to program PLC and know on how to find the best PLC design solutions. PLC Design Solutions for Increased Productivity As you may already know, knowing on how to find the best PLC design solutions is the key when we want to optimize the use of PLC. There are some methods we can use when dealing with PLC programming. The key is to find one that meets with your requirements. It is not really surprising that there are more and more people who decide to use PLCs. PLC programming has become one of the most essential parts that people should consider in automation industry. The same thing goes when we need to find PLC design solutions. 

The 9 Methods for Deploying SCADA Systems -"Leading industrial automation companies in India providing PLC SCADA DCS training in Chennai. Best PLC training center in Chennai. Automation in India,



The 9 Methods for Deploying SCADA Systems :


The process of data collection, reporting from the production lines, material handling and other processes in the production stage will be easy when using the SCADA system. SCADA systems can be implemented in many ways to make employees will get the ease of accessing data at any place on the point of the production process anywhere, also to get a graph of performance and the results of the process, and subsequent reporting can be created automatically in real time based on the data available in a format specific example the base day, base weekends or other time basis. 
The following sections will present the 9 methods for deploying SCADA systems:

1. Twisted-Pair Metallic Cable

In this telecommunication industry, aerial cables are more popular to be used as connection cable to connect the utilities service area since the Utility may own a large number of distribution poles. It has many advantages such as: No licensing, fewer approvals, Existing pole Infrastructure, Economical for short distances but you have to consider disadvantage like: Subject to breakage, Subject to water ingress, and Subject to ground potential rise due to power.
Twisted Pair Cable

2. Coaxial Metallic Cable

If you want to transmit high frequency signals up to several MH then the connection cable appropriate is Coaxial cable. It composed by a center copper conductor, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Insulation that can make high transfer process. It also extruded copper shield surrounding the center conductor and PVC insulation, with advantages more immune to radio frequency and having higher channel capacity. On the other hand it has many disadvantages such as subject to breakage and water ingress.
Coaxial Cable

3. Fiber Optic Cable

If your working area has been supported by fiber optic cable, the appropriate cable is Fiber optic technology where commercially available fibers have losses less than 0.3 dB/km. The benefits are Immune to electromagnetic, ground potential rise, Inflexible network configuration, Low operating cost but you have to consider losses of this magnitude, as well as the development of suitable lasers and optical detectors.
Fiber Optic Cable

4. Power Line Carrier

Power Line Carrier (PLC) more popular to be used since it conduct as the first reliable communications media available to electric utilities for critical communications channels. Intolerance and unreliability of leased (common carrier) telephone circuits make it provide high performance communication data results. It can transmit radio frequency signals in the range of 30 kHz to 500 kHz. But something that make it not practical to use are carrier frequencies often not protected on a primary basis.
Power Line Carrier

5. Satellites

Satellites positioned in geostationary orbit above the earth's equator into a medium of communication that proved effective, fast and easy for coverage over a particular area of the earth. Technology that is widely in use that is based VSAT advancing steadily use both the C-band and the Ku-band. Wide area coverage, Easy Access to remote sites, Costs independent of distance can be preferred option using this technology but you have lack on total dependency on a remote facility, Less control over transmission and transmission time delay you must considered on those.
Satellites

6. Leased Telephone Lines

Leased Lines Telephone much connected to the Public Switched Network (PSN) for office communication and for the special communication needs, such as telemetry and SCADA. For SCADA communication requires Wideband channel at high speed signals. Small Capital Outlay, Maintained circuit quality is critical benefits for you but Circuits may not be available at some sites and Repair and maintenance is not controlled by the lessee could be considering before your choose it.
Leased Telephone Lines

7. Very High Frequency Radio

Advances in data transmission in a mobile radio has succeeded in utilizing the Very High Frequency (VHF) band to support communication SCADA control system with a frequency range of 30-300 MHz. You can take benefits such as Frequency assignments available, Propagation over non-line-of-sight paths, Low cost radios compared to microwave but having problem for example Low channel capacity, Low digital data bit rate, Limited transmission techniques available that you must create solution.
Very High Frequency Radio

8. Ultra High Frequency Radio

SCADA application that uses ultra high radio frequency using a frequency range of 900 MHz  and can extend up to 300-3000 MHz. band to reach a wider area. The usage is limited, especially in the US, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulates the use of radio frequencies is the range of 928-952 MHz and is used for data communications applications. UHF covering the system may Point-To-Point (PTP), Point-To-Multipoint (PTM), Multiple Address Radio Systems and Spread Spectrum Radio.
Ultra High Frequency Radio

9. Microwave Radio

Microwave Radio is the term used to describe the UHF radio system operates at a frequency above 1 GHz, although the multi-channel radio systems operating below 1 GHz One use of Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA).
Microwave Radio

Conclusion

Those review above will provide knowledge about the concept of SCADA and technical implementation and several ways in which SCADA systems are connected can range from fiber optic cable to the use of satellite systems in the company. So, yo u can choose which one the best for your needs. 

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Basic Principle of QED Simplifies Industrial Control System (ICS) :



QED Board is the most important component in the Industrial Control System. These components can be used to convert a specific amount into an analog unit that can be read by an electronic circuit. Board QED circuits incorporated in the computer completed by front-panel user interfaces. This interface will provide multi drop communications, convenient screw terminals for easy field wiring, and room for QED Analog and Digital I / O boards.
QED ICS
QED ICS via www.mosaic-industries.com

To support this function QED was completed by several supporting device such as:
Configuration of this industrial control system will be started from converting the onboard battery-backed RAM to emulated ROM.

Step by step configuration of the system

Please set check the system features, normally consists of an on/off switch, power jacks, flexible jumper-configurable power routing and ample prototyping areas. And then, do this following step as below: Before next process you can plug in two QED Digital I/O Boards, or a Digital I/O Board and a QED Analog Conditioning Board. Current flow was needed to configure off-the-shelf interfaces for your real-world sensors and actuators.

Configure Your Own "Super-PLC"

PLC has been widely used in control systems as pre-programmed devices with an event control loop. But the development of modern control system needed superior alternative to control several the Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). This is The QED Industrial Control System has the main function as superior control system. Some of important processes doing by this system are: Industrial Control System as superior control supported by modern compatible high level language that is able to understand the complexity of programming ladder diagram. Built-in hardware and communications software has been designed to work well in a string of user interface for designing the front panel thus increasing productivity.

Product Specifications

Some specifications of the products below you can learn more so they can adjust the control system needs with engine capacity control:

Enclosure

Aluminum instrument enclosure houses all of the hardware with two 25-pin serial connectors, phone jacks for multi drop communications, power jacks and a power switch reside on the back of the enclosure that accessible with screw terminals simplify wiring

Backplane Board


Keypad

4 rows by 5 columns, 2.7" x 3.0" and A keypad scanning routine is built into the QED onboard software library. It has alternative 4 rows by 5 column touch screen overlay.

Computer

The QED Board, a surface-mount 3.2" x 4.0" board with standard complement of analog and digital I/O, real-time clock, 160K battery-backed RAM, and comprehensive development software in onboard 64K ROM

Power Supply

Wall mount supply provides 6 VDC at 500mA

Conclusion

Industrial Control System is an alternative solution to the needs of a superior control system in modern technology 

ControlLogix Analog I/O Modules-"Leading industrial automation companies in India providing PLC SCADA DCS training in Chennai. Best PLC training center in Chennai. Automation in India,



 How to Calibrate the ControlLogix Analog I/O Modules :



This product is the latest output from Allen Bradley. Level can use to industrial medium and large scale. Even today Rockwell Automation has made equivalent PlantPAX system is even able to compete with the reliability DCS using the ControlLogix as the main constituent component. Software used to design, download, and upload programs that RSLogix5000. It is better you know how to calibrate the ControlLogix Analog I/O Modules to ensure the best performance control system. This guidance as below:
ControlLogix Analog I/O Modules

Calibrating an Input Module and an Output Module Process

There are two things you have to do for ControlLogix calibration process,: the calibration module for analog input modules and output modules. The important difference of those calibration process are:

How can we calibrate with Either Program or Run Mode?

The calibration process can be carried out outside the standard program RSLogix5000. You can use other programs on the condition that you must connect online and using precision resistors. One of the recommended resistors is KRL Electronics - 534A1-1R0T a 0.01% 1.0 Ohm / 487 Ohm 534A1-487R0T a 0.01%. Do not use components that are below standard, for example 1756-IF16 module with a voltage calibrator of greater than +/- 150 μV accuracy). This is to avoid the occurrence of errors and anomalies. 

Modules Input calibration process

Input calibration process module needs to be done to ensure that the accuracy of data input can be processed properly. The process is relatively complex because it includes three main parameters that require specific calibration range. The process includes: More details: http://literature.rockwellautomation.com/idc/groups/literature/documents/um/1756-um009_-en-p.pdf

Calibrating the 1756-IF16 or 1756-IF8 Modules

The calibration process begins with the 1756-IF16 or 1756-IF8 modules. This calibration is used in applications requiring voltage or current by using a four-parameter input voltage ranges:
-10 ... 10V
0 ... 5V
0 ... 10V
0 ... 20 mA
1756-IF16 or 1756-IF8 Modules

The calibration process the 1756-IR6I Modules

Calibration of the 1756-IR6I is not associated with voltage or current but used to calibrate the channels in ohms using two precision resistors. The first resistor used for low reference calibration and the other resistor is used for high reference calibration. This calibration using the data range 1.. 487.
1756-IR6I Modules

Process Calibrating the 1756-IT6I or 1756-IT6I2 Modules

Calibrating the 1756-IT6I or 1756-IT6I2 require input voltage in millivolts scale with a range of -12 ... + 30 mV range or -12 ... + 78 mV range. In normal conditions typically use an input voltage range of -12 ... + 30 mV, whereas for certain conditions can use a higher voltage range again.
1756-IT6I or 1756-IT6I2 Modules

The calibration process Output Modules

Calibration process aims to measure the signal from the module which includes two calibration process, namely: 

Current Meter Calibrations

This calibration process is using RSLogix 5000 software. RSLogix 5000 is used to determine specific levels of current. Make sure all the data output is well documented to avoid any inaccuracies.
Current Meter Calibrations

Voltage Meter Calibrations

The calibration process is in principle the same as the current meter calibration, using the 1756-OF4, 1756-OF8, and 1756-OF6VI modules. Also make sure the output data when the system calibration process goes well documented.
Voltage Meter Calibrations

Considerations and benefits of SCADA system --Industrial Automation in India | PLC SCADA DCS Training in Chennai,

Considerations and benefits of SCADA system :


The development of increasingly complex industry requires a good integrated control system. The use of stand-alone machine control is not able to meet the needs of industry. SCADA system came into the most modern solutions today to meet the needs of an integrated automated control system. There are many considerations and benefits of using the SCADA.
Considerations and benefits of SCADA system

Overall control requirements

SCADA system which operates digitally and is designed for use in industrial environments, where the system uses a programmable memory for internal storage of instructions to implement specific functions such as logic, sequence, timing, counting and arithmetic operations to control the machine or processes through modules I / O digital and analog. Several overall control requirements need to be fulfilled before running as below:

Master/Operator control stations

SCADA provides system monitoring, control and automation functions that enable companies to improve operational reliability, reduce costs, improve the overall quality of the Operational Service and improve employee safety. Consider these items below to optimize your system:

System consideration

SCADA system provides flexibility in arranging and configuring the system, by placing sensors and controls at every critical point in the process of being addressed, it is usually used for early warning from a distance. The control optimization industry is often used for monitoring by SCADA system. Many industries uses this system to run their control system with several consideration as below:

The Benefits of SCADA Implementation

SCADA systems have the ability to learn the process. The more things can be monitored, the details of the operation that could be seen and everything works in real time. No matter as complex as any process that handled all can be seen on a large scale or small, thus all the errors that occur can be traced, and the data can be directly controlled because the data is centralized and distributed.
Obviously a SCADA system's initial cost has to be justified.  A few typical reasons for implementing a SCADA system are: 

SCADA system includes:

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Friday, 27 January 2017

The Top 20 Basic PLC Technical Term -Industrial Automation in India | PLC SCADA DCS Training in Chennai,



The Top 20 Basic PLC Technical Term :



PLC commonly used with special term in the real implementation. It is important to understand some key term to have good understanding about the ideas and concepts of PLC. Here are the top 20 basic technical term you need to know before dealing with PLC in real world.

1. Sensor

Sensor is a device to convert physical condition to an electrical signal that used by PLC. Sensor connected to PLC input port. Example of sensors arecurrent sensor, pressure sensor, voltage sensor, and soon. 
Basic PLC Technical 1 Sensor

2. Actuator

Actuator is a device that convert electrical signal into a physical condition. Example of actuator is motor starter that connected to PLC output. Actuator always connected to PLC output. Depending on the output signal, actuator will either start or stop the rotation.The difference between sensor and actuator is that sensor only to sense physical condition in surrounding environment, while actuator will do action (motor start) based on output condition.
Basic PLC Technical 2 Actuator

3. Discrete Input

Discrete input or digital input is electrical signal that can be expressed as ON or OFF condition. Push button and switch are some example of discrete input. When the condition is ON then it referred as logic 1 or high logic. While the condition is OFF then it means as logic 0 or logic low. There are two types of pushbutton or switch usually used, normally open and normally closed. Normally open (NO) pushbutton is a button that on normal condition it always open circuit. While normally closed (NC) pushbutton always closed the circuit connection in normal condition. Discrete input also categorized as sensor. Like pushbutton it can becategorized as sensor and discrete input because it convert physical condition to digital input.
Basic PLC Technical 3 Discrete Input

4. Analog Input

Analog input is a device that has a continuous signal. Continuous signal is a sinusoidal signal that have value varying from 0 to 20 milliamps or 0 to 10 volts

5. Discrete output

Discrete output or digital output is an output that can be either ON or OFF condition. This output can be connected to actuator for example lamp or alarm that will be ON or OFF depending on the output of PLC.

6. Analog Output

Analog output is an output signal that has continuous value. For example the output can produce voltage between 0 to 10 volt DC. This output value maybe varying like 2.5 volt or 3.45 volt. The accurate is depend on quality of digital-to-analog conversion device. Example of this output is pneumatic transducer that control air-flow depending on the current value from the output. 
Basic PLC Technical 6 Analog Output

7. CPU (Central Processing Unit)

CPU is microprocessor or microcontroller system that act as the PLC brain. It is the place where decision-making of PLC take place and contain memory. CPU monitors inputs and make decision based on instruction/program that build by designer. This program is stored in the memory.
Basic PLC Technical 7 CPU (Central Processing Unit)

8. Program

A program is a group of instruction that used by PLC to accomplish the task. The program is inputted by designer and stored in memory of PLC. When the PLC start to work, after initialize the device it will check the instruction on memory as reference of the work. There are some way to see the program such as ladder logic, statement list, or function block diagram. 

9. Ladder Logic (LAD)

Ladder logic is example of common programming language used to build PLC’s instruction. This language is like a line diagram format to describe hard-wired control.

10. Ladder Logic Diagram

Ladder logic diagram are read form left to right and from top to bottom. A network or rung consist of several control elements with only one output coil. The left vertical line of ladder logic diagram represent the power or energized conductor. There are also a vertical line at the right or ladder diagram, butsometimes is omitted. It represent the neutral or return path of the circuit.
Basic PLC Technical 10 Ladder Logic Diagram

11. Statement List (STL)

A statement list is another kind of programming language for PLC. It is like assembly or C language. It started with declaration of network name, then the operation is written on the left and on the right side is the operand (item to be operated on by the operation).
Basic PLC Technical 11 Statement List (STL)

12. Function Block Diagram (FBD)

Another view of a set instruction or program is function block diagram. Each function are indicated by a rectangle. On the left side is input declaration and on the right side is the output.
Basic PLC Technical 12 Function Block Diagram (FBD)

13. PLC Scan

PLC program is executed in a repetitive process that called as scan. This cycle start with the CPU reading status of inputs and then do some calculation or decision making based on instruction of program. After completed, the CPU perform internal diagnostic and communication task. At the last step, the PLC updating the output value before it start again to the first step.
Basic PLC Technical 13 PLC Scan

14. Software

Software is a computer program or other information that can be used by PLC or computer. Usually it include instruction or program that show code running by PLC.

15. Hardware

Hardware is the actual devices of PLC. Example of hardware are the PLC, connection cable, and programming devices.
Basic PLC Technical 15 Hardware

16. Memory Size

The memory of PLC is limited by its size. Usually it only some K or Kilo bytes. When talking about computer or PLC, 1 K memory size means 1024 because in binary system 210 = 1024.
Basic PLC Technical 16 Memory Size

17. RAM

Random Access Memory (RAM) is memory that used as temporary storage. It will lost its data when the power is lost.

18. ROM

Read Only Memory (ROM) is memory that stored data in nonvolatile way. It means when the power lost, the date in ROM will not erased and can be used again.

19. EEPROM

Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EEPROM) provide some level security to protect data or program changed by unauthorized. Data in EEPROM can be read but not easily altered.

20. Firmware

Firmware is a program or application burned into EEPROM. It’s provide basic functionality of PLC. The program that build by designer to PLC can also be called as firmware because it provide the functionality of PLC.
Basic PLC Technical 20 Firmware