Thursday, 30 June 2016

Industrial Automation in India | PLC SCADA DCS Training in Chennai

We are Chennai based leading company engaged in supplying of electrical and automation systems for various industrial segments. Hindustan Automation Solutions has always been a customer oriented firm which makes sincere efforts to manufacture and supply latest and useful software and hardware for its valuable clientele across India. Today's world revolves around high technology & most companies have invested substantially in automated plants. For this reason most manufacturing companies are looking for competent engineers with basic aptitude towards automation and ability to work on varied brands of PLCs, Drives, MMI and SCADA. High levels of technical skills are required to keep it going in operations & maintenance. This prompted us to enter in this business domain.

In Today's world revolves around high technology & most companies have invested substantially in automated plants. For this reason most manufacturing companies are looking for competent engineers with basic aptitude towards automation and ability to work on varied brands of PLCs, Drives, MMI and SCADA. The usage of automation has increased more than tenfold in each industry for them to compete globally & the requirement for PLC, SCADA, MMI/HMI, DCS, trained engineers keep on increasing. We have been conducting training on various industrial automation tools such as PLC,SCADA,MMI/HMI,DCS for college students , fresher’s and industry professionals every month. We also provide tailor made training for specific areas of technology.

Industrial Automation in India | PLC SCADA DCS Training in Chennai

Greetings from Hindustan Automation Solutions Are you a determined fresher to get job in core industries? Get an opportunity to get placed in any of the following core engineering sector, Power plant Automotive industries Chemical industries Oil & gas Petroleum Steel industries Automation companies Textile industry Power station Attend our on job training course on industrial automation & get ready for job in your dream core industries. Importance of taking this training: Since most core companies have invested substantially in automated plants, they are looking for http://www.hindustanautomation.in/competent engineers with basic aptitude towards automation and ability to work on varied brands of PLCs, Drives, MMI and SCADA. The usage of automation has increased more than tenfold in each industry for them to compete globally & the requirement for PLC, SCADA, MMI/HMI, DCS, trained engineers keep on increasing. So it s time for you to take a decisive decision on your career. Training highlights: Industrial Project works Site works Placement Stipend during the training period For more information about our company & our clients log on to www.hindustanautomation.in




Wednesday, 29 June 2016

Industrial Automation in India | PLC SCADA DCS Training in Chennai

Greetings from Hindustan Automation Solutions Are you a determined fresher to get job in core industries? Get an opportunity to get placed in any of the following core engineering sector, Power plant Automotive industries Chemical industries Oil & gas Petroleum Steel industries Automation companies Textile industry Power station Attend our on job training course on industrial automation & get ready for job in your dream core industries. Importance of taking this training: Since most core companies have invested substantially in automated plants, they are looking for competent engineers with basic aptitude towards automation and ability to work on varied brands of PLCs, Drives, MMI and SCADA. The usage of automation has increased more than tenfold in each industry for them to compete globally & the requirement for PLC, SCADA, MMI/HMI, DCS, trained engineers keep on increasing. So it s time for you to take a decisive decision on your career. Training highlights: Industrial Project works Site works Placement Stipend during the training period For more information about our company & our clients log on to www.hindustanautomation.in

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Automation :




Automation or automatic control, is the use of various control systems for operating equipment such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and heat treating ovens, switching on telephone networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft and other applications with minimal or reduced human intervention. Some processes have been completely automated.






Monday, 27 June 2016

Industrial Automation in India | PLC SCADA DCS Training in Chennai






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Industrial Automation in India | PLC SCADA DCS Training in Chennai

Router  :


A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks. Routers perform the "traffic directing" functions on the Internet. A data packet is typically forwarded from one router to another through the networks that constitute the networking until it reaches its destination node.  A router is connected to two or more data lines from different networks (as opposed to a network switch, which connects data lines from one single network). When a data packet comes in on one of the lines, the router reads the address information in the packet to determine its ultimate destination. Then, using information in its routing table or routing policy, it directs the packet to the next network on its journey. This creates an overlay networking.  The most familiar type of routers are home and small office routers that simply pass data, such as web pages, email, IM, and videos between the home computers and the Internet. An example of a router would be the owner's cable or DSL router, which connects to the Internet through an ISP. More sophisticated routers, such as enterprise routers, connect large business or ISP networks up to the powerful core routers that forward data at high speed along the optical fiber lines of the Internet backbone. Though routers are typically dedicated hardware devices, use of software-based routers has grown increasingly common.

 Applications  : 

 

When multiple routers are used in interconnected networks, the routers exchange information about destination addresses using a dynamic routing protocol. Each router builds up a table listing the preferred routes between any two systems on the interconnected networks.A router has interfaces for different physical types of network connections, such as copper cables, fibre optic, or wireless transmission. It also contains firmware for different networking communications protocol standards. Each network interface uses this specialized computer software to enable data packets to be forwarded from one protocol transmission system to another.  Routers may also be used to connect two or more logical groups of computer devices known as subnets, each with a different sub-network address. The subnet addresses recorded in the router do not necessarily map directly to the physical interface connections.  A router has two stages of operation called planes:
     Control plane: A router maintains a routing table that lists which route should be used to forward a data packet, and through which physical interface connection. It does this using internal pre-configured directives, called static routes, or by learning routes using a dynamic routing protocol. Static and dynamic routes are stored in the Routing Information Base (RIB). The control-plane logic then strips the RIB from non essential directives and builds a Forwarding Information Base (FIB) to be used by the forwarding-plane.     Forwarding plane: The router forwards data packets between incoming and outgoing interface connections. It routes them to the correct network type using information that the packet header contains. It uses data recorded in the routing table control plane.  Routers may provide connectivity within enterprises, between enterprises and the Internet, or between internet service providers' (ISPs) networks. The largest routers (such as the Cisco CRS-1 or Juniper T1600) interconnect the various ISPs, or may be used in large enterprise networks.Smaller routers usually provide connectivity for typical home and office networks. Other networking solutions may be provided by a backbone Wireless Distribution System (WDS), which avoids the costs of introducing networking cables into buildings.  All sizes of routers may be found inside enterprises.The most powerful routers are usually found in ISPs, academic and research facilities. Large businesses may also need more powerful routers to cope with ever increasing demands of intranet data traffic. A three-layer model is in common use, not all of which need be present in smaller networks.



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Resistance thermometer :







R vs T relationship of various metals  :

 

Common RTD sensing elements constructed of platinum, copper or nickel have a repeatable resistance versus temperature relationship (R vs T) and operating temperature range. The R vs T relationship is defined as the amount of resistance change of the sensor per degree of temperature change.The relative change in resistance (temperature coefficient of resistance) varies only slightly over the useful range of the sensor.  Platinum was proposed by Sir William Siemens as an element for resistance temperature detector at the Bakerian lecture in 1871: it is a noble metal and has the most stable resistance-temperature relationship over the largest temperature range. Nickel elements have a limited temperature range because the amount of change in resistance per degree of change in temperature becomes very non-linear at temperatures over 572 °F (300 °C). Copper has a very linear resistance-temperature relationship, however copper oxidizes at moderate temperatures and cannot be used over 302 °F (150 °C).  Platinum is the best metal for RTDs because it follows a very linear resistance-temperature relationship and it follows the R vs T relationship in a highly repeatable manner over a wide temperature range. The unique properties of platinum make it the material of choice for temperature standards over the range of -272.5 °C to 961.78 °C, and is used in the sensors that define the International Temperature Standard, ITS-90. Platinum is chosen also because of its chemical inertness.  The significant characteristic of metals used as resistive elements is the linear approximation of the resistance versus temperature relationship between 0 and 100 °C. This temperature coefficient of resistance is denoted by alpha, α. The equation below defines α; its unit is ohm/ohm°C.      α = R 100 − R 0 100 R 0 {\displaystyle \alpha ={\frac {R_{100}-R_{0}}{100R_{0}}}} \alpha = \frac{R_{100} - R_0}{100R_0}     R 0 = {\displaystyle R_{0}=} R_0 = the resistance of the sensor at 0 °C     R 100 = {\displaystyle R_{100}=} R_{100} = the resistance of the sensor at 100 °C  Pure platinum has an alpha of 0.003925 ohm/ohm°C in the 0 to 100 °C range and is used in the construction of laboratory grade RTDs. Conversely two widely recognized standards for industrial RTDs IEC 60751 and ASTM E-1137 specify an alpha of 0.00385 ohms/ohm°C. Before these standards were widely adopted several different alpha values were used. It is still possible to find older probes that are made with platinum that have alpha values of 0.003916 ohms/ohm°C and 0.003902 ohms/ohm°C.  These different alpha values for platinum are achieved by doping; basically carefully introducing impurities into the platinum. The impurities introduced during doping become embedded in the lattice structure of the platinum and result in a different R vs. T curve and hence alpha value 


Calibration

  To characterize the R vs T relationship of any RTD over a temperature range that represents the planned range of use, calibration must be performed at temperatures other than 0 °C and 100 °C. This is necessary to meet calibration requirements, although RTD's are considered to be linear in operation it must be proven that they are accurate with regard to the temperatures they will actually be used (see details in Comparison calibration option). Two common calibration methods are the fixed point method and the comparison method.     Fixed point calibration, used for the highest accuracy calibrations, uses the triple point, freezing point or melting point of pure substances such as water, zinc, tin, and argon to generate a known and repeatable temperature. These cells allow the user to reproduce actual conditions of the ITS-90 temperature scale. Fixed point calibrations provide extremely accurate calibrations (within ±0.001 °C). A common fixed point calibration method for industrial-grade probes is the ice bath. The equipment is inexpensive, easy to use, and can accommodate several sensors at once. The ice point is designated as a secondary standard because its accuracy is ±0.005 °C (±0.009 °F), compared to ±0.001 °C (±0.0018 °F) for primary fixed points.     Comparison calibrations, commonly used with secondary SPRTs and industrial RTDs, the thermometers being calibrated are compared to calibrated thermometers by means of a bath whose temperature is uniformly stable. Unlike fixed point calibrations, comparisons can be made at any temperature between –100 °C and 500 °C (–148 °F to 932 °F). This method might be more cost-effective since several sensors can be calibrated simultaneously with automated equipment. These electrically heated and well-stirred baths use silicone oils and molten salts as the medium for the various calibration temperatures. 


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Industrial Automation in India | PLC SCADA DCS Training in Chennai





Highway Addressable Remote Transducer Protocol :


The HART Communications Protocol (Highway Addressable Remote Transducer) is an early implementation of Fieldbus, a digital industrial automation protocol. Its most notable advantage is that it can communicate over legacy 4-20 mA analog instrumentation wiring, sharing the pair of wires used by the older system. According to Emerson, due to the huge installed base of 4–20 mA systems throughout the world, the HART Protocol is one of the most popular industrial protocols today. HART protocol has made a good transition protocol for users who were comfortable using the legacy 4–20 mA signals, but wanted to implement a "smart" protocol. Industries seem to be using Profibus DP/PA and Foundation fieldbus (also by Rosemount) more as users become familiar with later technology and look to take advantage of the enhanced diagnostics they can provide.  The protocol was developed by Rosemount Inc., built off the Bell 202 early communications standard, in the mid-1980s as proprietary digital communication protocol for their smart field instruments. Soon it evolved into HART. In 1986, it was made an open protocol. Since then, the capabilities of the protocol have been enhanced by successive revisions to the specification.

Modes :


There are two main operational modes of HART instruments: analog/digital mode, and multidrop mode.  In point-to-point mode (analog/digital) the digital signals are overlaid on the 4-20 mA loop current. Both the 4-20 mA current and the digital signal are valid output values from the instrument. The polling address of the instrument is set to "0". Only one instrument can be put on each instrument cable signal pair. One signal, generally specified by the user, is specified to be the 4-20 mA signal. Other signals are sent digitally on top of the 4-20 mA signal. For example, pressure can be sent as 4-20 mA, representing a range of pressures, and temperature can be sent digitally over the same wires. In point-to-point mode, the digital part of the HART protocol can be seen as a kind of digital current loop interface.  In Multidrop mode The analog loop current is fixed at 4 mA. In multidrop mode it is possible to have more than one instruments on one signal cable. HART revisions 3 through 5 allowed polling addresses of the instruments to be in the range 1–15. HART 6 and later allowed address up to 63. Each instrument needs to have a unique address.

Sunday, 26 June 2016

Industrial Automation in India | PLC SCADA DCS Training in Chennai



We are Chennai based leading company engaged in supplying of electrical and automation systems for various industrial segments. Hindustan Automation Solutions has always been a customer oriented firm which makes sincere efforts to manufacture and supply latest and useful software and hardware for its valuable clientele across India. Today's world revolves around high technology & most companies have invested substantially in automated plants. For this reason most manufacturing companies are looking for competent engineers with basic aptitude towards automation and ability to work on varied brands of PLCs, Drives, MMI and SCADA. High levels of technical skills are required to keep it going in operations & maintenance. This prompted us to enter in this business domain.

The company has been offering industrial automation/process automation, since its inception. We also provide trained manpower in PLC automation and after sales services to several industries at nominal charges. Apart from this, our centre in Chennai offers excellent training for engineering students, industry professionals, and freshers. We also conduct courses in the field of PLC & SCADA which are extremely useful for companies interested in automation trainings to update the skills of their technical persons, students undergoing summer training, working professionals engaged in project/maintenance/production/design/application engineering departments.
Our Mission:

To provide unique solutions in safety application domain.
To offer all kinds of solutions in embedded processor technology.
To provide total solution to our customers right from design, development, manufacture, supply, installation, and commissioning on turnkey basis.
Manufacture and supply outstanding software and hardware at cost efficient prices.
Our Experts:
Our expert team of professionals comprises of software and hardware engineers, R&D personnel, and other technocrats having mastery in embedded processor technology, process automation etc. We, at Hindustan Automation Solutions are known for our quality PLC & SCADA training and project related with software and hardware.
Our dedicated and innovative team is the only reason for our huge success in this competitive market. Our people possess expertise in offering all sorts of after sales and services in industrial automation/process automation fields at cost effective prices to our clientele which is spread across the country. With their sincere and untiring efforts, we have gained a distinct position in this business domain.
Why Hindustan Automation Solutions:
Experts in offering professional training services in engineering and management areas
Consultancy services on engineering and technology practice management
Reliability Analysis
In-house embedded system R&D
Product Engineering with PCB and mechanical design CAD facility
Panel building and staging
Training and projects for students and professionals as per their requirements. 
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Industrial Automation in India | PLC SCADA DCS Training in Chennai

HMI Recipes used in production processes are stores of data, specific to a particular product, which can be called up on demand and then implemented to produce the product.




The user interface (UI), in the industrial design field of human–machine interaction, is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur. The goal of this interaction is to allow effective operation and control of the machine from the human end, whilst the machine simultaneously feeds back information that aids the operators' decision-making process. Examples of this broad concept of user interfaces include the interactive aspects of computer operating systems, hand tools, heavy machinery operator controls, and process controls. The design considerations applicable when creating user interfaces are related to or involve such disciplines as ergonomics and psychology. Generally, the goal of user interface design is to produce a user interface which makes it easy (self-explanatory), efficient, and enjoyable (user-friendly) to operate a machine in the way which produces the desired result. This generally means that the operator needs to provide minimal input to achieve the desired output, and also that the machine minimizes undesired outputs to the human. With the increased use of personal computers and the relative decline in societal awareness of heavy machinery, the term user interface is generally assumed to mean the graphical user interface, while industrial control panel and machinery control design discussions more commonly refer to human-machine interfaces. Other terms for user interface include human–computer interface and man–machine interface (MMI).



Industrial Automation in India | PLC SCADA DCS Training in Chennai

We are Chennai based leading company engaged in supplying of electrical and automation systems for various industrial segments. Hindustan Automation Solutions has always been a customer oriented firm which makes sincere efforts to manufacture and supply latest and useful software and hardware for its valuable clientele across India. Today's world revolves around high technology & most companies have invested substantially in automated plants. For this reason most manufacturing companies are looking for competent engineers with basic aptitude towards automation and ability to work on varied brands of PLCs, Drives, MMI and SCADA. High levels of technical skills are required to keep it going in operations & maintenance. This prompted us to enter in this business domain.

The company has been offering industrial automation/process automation, since its inception. We also provide trained manpower in PLC automation and after sales services to several industries at nominal charges. Apart from this, our centre in Chennai offers excellent training for engineering students, industry professionals, and freshers. We also conduct courses in the field of PLC & SCADA which are extremely useful for companies interested in automation trainings to update the skills of their technical persons, students undergoing summer training, working professionals engaged in project/maintenance/production/design/application engineering departments.
Our Mission:

To provide unique solutions in safety application domain.
To offer all kinds of solutions in embedded processor technology.
To provide total solution to our customers right from design, development, manufacture, supply, installation, and commissioning on turnkey basis.
Manufacture and supply outstanding software and hardware at cost efficient prices.
Our Experts:
Our expert team of professionals comprises of software and hardware engineers, R&D personnel, and other technocrats having mastery in embedded processor technology, process automation etc. We, at Hindustan Automation Solutions are known for our quality PLC & SCADA training and project related with software and hardware.
Our dedicated and innovative team is the only reason for our huge success in this competitive market. Our people possess expertise in offering all sorts of after sales and services in industrial automation/process automation fields at cost effective prices to our clientele which is spread across the country. With their sincere and untiring efforts, we have gained a distinct position in this business domain.
Why Hindustan Automation Solutions:
Experts in offering professional training services in engineering and management areas
Consultancy services on engineering and technology practice management
Reliability Analysis
In-house embedded system R&D
Product Engineering with PCB and mechanical design CAD facility
Panel building and staging
Training and projects for students and professionals as per their requirements. 
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http://www.hindustanautomation.in/

Industrial Automation in India | PLC SCADA DCS Training in Chennai

We are Chennai based leading company engaged in supplying of electrical and automation systems for various industrial segments. Hindustan Automation Solutions has always been a customer oriented firm which makes sincere efforts to manufacture and supply latest and useful software and hardware for its valuable clientele across India. Today's world revolves around high technology & most companies have invested substantially in automated plants. For this reason most manufacturing companies are looking for competent engineers with basic aptitude towards automation and ability to work on varied brands of PLCs, Drives, MMI and SCADA. High levels of technical skills are required to keep it going in operations & maintenance. This prompted us to enter in this business domain.

The company has been offering industrial automation/process automation, since its inception. We also provide trained manpower in PLC automation and after sales services to several industries at nominal charges. Apart from this, our centre in Chennai offers excellent training for engineering students, industry professionals, and freshers. We also conduct courses in the field of PLC & SCADA which are extremely useful for companies interested in automation trainings to update the skills of their technical persons, students undergoing summer training, working professionals engaged in project/maintenance/production/design/application engineering departments.
Our Mission:

To provide unique solutions in safety application domain.
To offer all kinds of solutions in embedded processor technology.
To provide total solution to our customers right from design, development, manufacture, supply, installation, and commissioning on turnkey basis.
Manufacture and supply outstanding software and hardware at cost efficient prices.
Our Experts:
Our expert team of professionals comprises of software and hardware engineers, R&D personnel, and other technocrats having mastery in embedded processor technology, process automation etc. We, at Hindustan Automation Solutions are known for our quality PLC & SCADA training and project related with software and hardware.
Our dedicated and innovative team is the only reason for our huge success in this competitive market. Our people possess expertise in offering all sorts of after sales and services in industrial automation/process automation fields at cost effective prices to our clientele which is spread across the country. With their sincere and untiring efforts, we have gained a distinct position in this business domain.
Why Hindustan Automation Solutions:
Experts in offering professional training services in engineering and management areas
Consultancy services on engineering and technology practice management
Reliability Analysis
In-house embedded system R&D
Product Engineering with PCB and mechanical design CAD facility
Panel building and staging
Training and projects for students and professionals as per their requirements. 
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Saturday, 25 June 2016

Industrial Automation in India | PLC SCADA DCS Training in Chennai

PLC compared with other control systems :

PLCs are well adapted to a range of automation tasks. These are typically industrial processes in manufacturing where the cost of developing and maintaining the automation system is high relative to the total cost of the automation, and where changes to the system would be expected during its operational life. PLCs contain input and output devices compatible with industrial pilot devices and controls; little electrical design is required, and the design problem centers on expressing the desired sequence of operations. PLC applications are typically highly customized systems, so the cost of a packaged PLC is low compared to the cost of a specific custom-built controller design. On the other hand, in the case of mass-produced goods, customized control systems are economical. This is due to the lower cost of the components, which can be optimally chosen instead of a "generic" solution, and where the non-recurring engineering charges are spread over thousands or millions of units.  For high volume or very simple fixed automation tasks, different techniques are used. For example, a consumer dishwasher would be controlled by an electromechanical cam timer costing only a few dollars in production quantities.  A microcontroller-based design would be appropriate where hundreds or thousands of units will be produced and so the development cost (design of power supplies, input/output hardware, and necessary testing and certification) can be spread over many sales, and where the end-user would not need to alter the control. Automotive applications are an example; millions of units are built each year, and very few end-users alter the programming of these controllers. However, some specialty vehicles such as transit buses economically use PLCs instead of custom-designed controls, because the volumes are low and the development cost would be uneconomical. Very complex process control, such as used in the chemical industry, may require algorithms and performance beyond the capability of even high-performance PLCs. Very high-speed or precision controls may also require customized solutions; for example, aircraft flight controls. Single-board computers using semi-customized or fully proprietary hardware may be chosen for very demanding control applications where the high development and maintenance cost can be supported. "Soft PLCs" running on desktop-type computers can interface with industrial I/O hardware while executing programs within a version of commercial operating systems adapted for process control needs.  Programmable controllers are widely used in motion, positioning, and/or torque control. Some manufacturers produce motion control units to be integrated with PLC so that G-code (involving a CNC machine) can be used to instruct machine movements.[citation needed]  PLCs may include logic for single-variable feedback analog control loop, a proportional, integral, derivative (PID) controller. A PID loop could be used to control the temperature of a manufacturing process, for example. Historically PLCs were usually configured with only a few analog control loops; where processes required hundreds or thousands of loops, a distributed control system (DCS) would instead be used. As PLCs have become more powerful, the boundary between DCS and PLC applications has been blurred.  PLCs have similar functionality as remote terminal units. An RTU, however, usually does not support control algorithms or control loops. As hardware rapidly becomes more powerful and cheaper, RTUs, PLCs, and DCSs are increasingly beginning to overlap in responsibilities, and many vendors sell RTUs with PLC-like features, and vice versa. The industry has standardized on the IEC 61131-3 functional block language for creating programs to run on RTUs and PLCs, although nearly all vendors also offer proprietary alternatives and associated development environments.  In recent years "safety" PLCs have started to become popular, either as standalone models or as functionality and safety-rated hardware added to existing controller architectures (Allen-Bradley Guardlogix, Siemens F-series etc.). These differ from conventional PLC types as being suitable for use in safety-critical applications for which PLCs have traditionally been supplemented with hard-wired safety relays. For example, a safety PLC might be used to control access to a robot cell with trapped-key access, or perhaps to manage the shutdown response to an emergency stop on a conveyor production line. Such PLCs typically have a restricted regular instruction set augmented with safety-specific instructions designed to interface with emergency stops, light screens, and so forth. The flexibility that such systems offer has resulted in rapid growth of demand for these controllers.


Discrete and analog signals : 


Discrete signals behave as binary switches, yielding simply an On or Off signal (1 or 0, True or False, respectively). Push buttons, limit switches, and photoelectric sensors are examples of devices providing a discrete signal. Discrete signals are sent using either voltage or current, where a specific range is designated as On and another as Off. For example, a PLC might use 24 V DC I/O, with values above 22 V DC representing On, values below 2VDC representing Off, and intermediate values undefined. Initially, PLCs had only discrete I/O.  Analog signals are like volume controls, with a range of values between zero and full-scale. These are typically interpreted as integer values (counts) by the PLC, with various ranges of accuracy depending on the device and the number of bits available to store the data. As PLCs typically use 16-bit signed binary processors, the integer values are limited between -32,768 and +32,767. Pressure, temperature, flow, and weight are often represented by analog signals. Analog signals can use voltage or current with a magnitude proportional to the value of the process signal. For example, an analog 0 to 10 V or 4-20 mA input would be converted into an integer value of 0 to 32767.  Current inputs are less sensitive to electrical noise (e.g. from welders or electric motor starts) than voltage inputs.



Industrial Automation in India | PLC SCADA DCS Training in Chennai

RS-232 : 

                                              



In telecommunications, RS-232 is a standard for serial communication transmission of data. It formally defines the signals connecting between a DTE (data terminal equipment) such as a computer terminal, and a DCE (data circuit-terminating equipment or data communication equipment), such as a modem. The RS-232 standard is commonly used in computer serial ports. The standard defines the electrical characteristics and timing of signals, the meaning of signals, and the physical size and pinout of connectors. The current version of the standard is TIA-232-F Interface Between Data Terminal Equipment and Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment Employing Serial Binary Data Interchange, issued in 1997.  An RS-232 serial port was once a standard feature of a personal computer, used for connections to modems, printers, mice, data storage, uninterruptible power supplies, and other peripheral devices. However, RS-232 is hampered by low transmission speed, large voltage swing, and large standard connectors. In modern personal computers, USB has displaced RS-232 from most of its peripheral interface roles. Many computers do not come equipped with RS-232 ports and must use either an external USB-to-RS-232 converter or an internal expansion card with one or more serial ports to connect to RS-232 peripherals. Nevertheless, RS-232 devices are still used, especially in industrial machines, networking equipment, and scientific instruments.

Connectors : 

RS-232 devices may be classified as Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) or Data Circuit-terminating Equipment (DCE); this defines at each device which wires will be sending and receiving each signal. According to the standard, male connectors have DTE pin functions, and female connectors have DCE pin functions. Other devices may have any combination of connector gender and pin definitions. Many terminals were manufactured with female connectors but were sold with a cable with male connectors at each end; the terminal with its cable satisfied the recommendations in the standard.  The standard recommends the D-subminiature 25-pin connector, but does not make it mandatory. Most devices only implement or use a few of the twenty signals specified in the standard, so connectors and cables with fewer pins are sufficient for most connections, more compact, and less expensive. Personal computer manufacturers replaced the DB-25M connector with the smaller DE-9M connector. This connector, with a different pinout (see Serial port § Pinouts), is prevalent for personal computers and associated devices.  Presence of a 25-pin D-sub connector does not necessarily indicate an RS-232-C compliant interface. For example, on the original IBM PC, a male D-sub was an RS-232-C DTE port (with a non-standard current loop interface on reserved pins), but the female D-sub connector on the same PC model was used for the parallel "Centronics" printer port. Some personal computers put non-standard voltages or signals on some pins of their serial ports.

Cables :

The standard does not define a maximum cable length, but instead defines the maximum capacitance that a compliant drive circuit must tolerate. A widely used rule of thumb indicates that cables more than 15 m (50 ft) long will have too much capacitance, unless special cables are used. By using low-capacitance cables, full speed[clarification needed] communication can be maintained over larger distances up to about 300 m (1,000 ft).For longer distances, other signal standards are better suited to maintain high speed.  Since the standard definitions are not always correctly applied, it is often necessary to consult documentation, test connections with a breakout box, or use trial and error to find a cable that works when interconnecting two devices. Connecting a fully standard-compliant DCE device and DTE device would use a cable that connects identical pin numbers in each connector (a so-called "straight cable"). "Gender changers" are available to solve gender mismatches between cables and connectors. Connecting devices with different types of connectors requires a cable that connects the corresponding pins according to the table above. Cables with 9 pins on one end and 25 on the other are common. Manufacturers of equipment with 8P8C connectors usually provide a cable with either a DB-25 or DE-9 connector (or sometimes interchangeable connectors so they can work with multiple devices). Poor-quality cables can cause false signals by crosstalk between data and control lines (such as Ring Indicator).  If a given cable will not allow a data connection, especially if a gender changer is in use, a null modem cable may be necessary. Gender changers and null modem cables are not mentioned in the standard, so there is no officially sanctioned design for them. 


3-wire and 5-wire RS-232 : 


A minimal "3-wire" RS-232 connection consisting only of transmit data, receive data, and ground, is commonly used when the full facilities of RS-232 are not required. Even a two-wire connection (data and ground) can be used if the data flow is one way (for example, a digital postal scale that periodically sends a weight reading, or a GPS receiver that periodically sends position, if no configuration via RS-232 is necessary). When only hardware flow control is required in addition to two-way data, the RTS and CTS lines are added in a 5-wire version.







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Circuit breaker : 
A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by over-current or overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to interrupt current flow after protective relays detect a fault. Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then must be replaced, a circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or automatically) to resume normal operation. Circuit breakers are made in varying sizes, from small devices that protect an individual household appliance up to large switchgear designed to protect high voltage circuits feeding an entire city. The generic function of a circuit breaker, RCD or a fuse, as an automatic means of removing power from a faulty system is often abbreviated to ADS (Automatic Disconnection of Supply).






Operation : 

All circuit breaker systems have common features in their operation. Although details vary substantially depending on the voltage class, current rating and type of the circuit breaker.  The circuit breaker must detect a fault condition; in low voltage circuit breakers this is usually done within the breaker enclosure. Circuit breakers for large currents or high voltages are usually arranged with protective relay pilot devices to sense a fault condition and to operate the trip opening mechanism. The trip solenoid that releases the latch is usually energized by a separate battery, although some high-voltage circuit breakers are self-contained with current transformers, protective relays, and an internal control power source.  Once a fault is detected, the circuit breaker contacts must open to interrupt the circuit; some mechanically stored energy (using something such as springs or compressed air) contained within the breaker is used to separate the contacts, although some of the energy required may be obtained from the fault current itself. Small circuit breakers may be manually operated, larger units have solenoids to trip the mechanism, and electric motors to restore energy to the springs.  The circuit breaker contacts must carry the load current without excessive heating, and must also withstand the heat of the arc produced when interrupting (opening) the circuit. Contacts are made of copper or copper alloys, silver alloys and other highly conductive materials. Service life of the contacts is limited by the erosion of contact material due to arcing while interrupting the current. Miniature and molded-case circuit breakers are usually discarded when the contacts have worn, but power circuit breakers and high-voltage circuit breakers have replaceable contacts.  When a current is interrupted, an arc is generated. This arc must be contained, cooled and extinguished in a controlled way, so that the gap between the contacts can again withstand the voltage in the circuit. Different circuit breakers use vacuum, air, insulating gas, or oil as the medium the arc forms in. Different techniques are used to extinguish the arc including:  Lengthening or deflecting the arc Intensive cooling (in jet chambers) Division into partial arcs Zero point quenching (contacts open at the zero current time crossing of the AC waveform, effectively breaking no load current at the time of opening. The zero crossing occurs at twice the line frequency; i.e., 100 times per second for 50 Hz and 120 times per second for 60 Hz AC.) Connecting capacitors in parallel with contacts in DC circuits. Finally, once the fault condition has been cleared, the contacts must again be closed to restore power to the interrupted circuit.



Thursday, 23 June 2016

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Switched-mode power supply   : 

A switched-mode power supply (switching-mode power supply, switch-mode power supply, switched power supply, SMPS, or switcher) is an electronic power supply that incorporates a switching regulator to convert electrical power efficiently. Like other power supplies, an SMPS transfers power from a source, like mains power, to a load, such as a personal computer, while converting voltage and current characteristics. Unlike a linear power supply, the pass transistor of a switching-mode supply continually switches between low-dissipation, full-on and full-off states, and spends very little time in the high dissipation transitions, which minimizes wasted energy. Ideally, a switched-mode power supply dissipates no power. Voltage regulation is achieved by varying the ratio of on-to-off time. In contrast, a linear power supply regulates the output voltage by continually dissipating power in the pass transistor. This higher power conversion efficiency is an important advantage of a switched-mode power supply. Switched-mode power supplies may also be substantially smaller and lighter than a linear supply due to the smaller transformer size and weight.  Switching regulators are used as replacements for linear regulators when higher efficiency, smaller size or lighter weight are required. They are, however, more complicated; their switching currents can cause electrical noise problems if not carefully suppressed, and simple designs may have a poor power factor.



Theory of operation:





Input rectifier stage :


If the SMPS has an AC input, then the first stage is to convert the input to DC. This is called rectification. A SMPS with a DC input does not require this stage. In some power supplies (mostly computer ATX power supplies), the rectifier circuit can be configured as a voltage doubler by the addition of a switch operated either manually or automatically. This feature permits operation from power sources that are normally at 115 V or at 230 V. The rectifier produces an unregulated DC voltage which is then sent to a large filter capacitor. The current drawn from the mains supply by this rectifier circuit occurs in short pulses around the AC voltage peaks. These pulses have significant high frequency energy which reduces the power factor. To correct for this, many newer SMPS will use a special PFC circuit to make the input current follow the sinusoidal shape of the AC input voltage, correcting the power factor. Power supplies that use Active PFC usually are auto-ranging, supporting input voltages from ~100 VAC – 250 VAC, with no input voltage selector switch.  An SMPS designed for AC input can usually be run from a DC supply, because the DC would pass through the rectifier unchanged. If the power supply is designed for 115 VAC and has no voltage selector switch, the required DC voltage would be 163 VDC (115 × √2). This type of use may be harmful to the rectifier stage, however, as it will only use half of diodes in the rectifier for the full load. This could possibly result in overheating of these components, causing them to fail prematurely. On the other hand, if the power supply has a voltage selector switch, based on the Delon circuit, for 115/230V (computer ATX power supplies typically are in this category), the selector switch would have to be put in the 230 V position, and the required voltage would be 325 VDC (230 × √2). The diodes in this type of power supply will handle the DC current just fine because they are rated to handle double the nominal input current when operated in the 115 V mode, due to the operation of the voltage doubler. This is because the doubler, when in operation, uses only half of the bridge rectifier and runs twice as much current through it.It is uncertain how an Auto-ranging/Active-PFC type power supply would react to being powered by DC.







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MOSFET : 

The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is a type of transistor used for amplifying or switching electronic signals.  Although the MOSFET is a four-terminal device with source (S), gate (G), drain (D), and body (B) terminals, the body (or substrate) of the MOSFET is often connected to the source terminal, making it a three-terminal device like other field-effect transistors. Because these two terminals are normally connected to each other (short-circuited) internally, only three terminals appear in electrical diagrams. The MOSFET is by far the most common transistor in both digital and analog circuits, though the bipolar junction transistor was at one time much more common.  The main advantage of a MOSFET over a regular transistor is that it requires very little current to turn on (less than 1mA), while delivering a much higher current to a load (10 to 50A or more).  In enhancement mode MOSFETs, a voltage drop across the oxide induces a conducting channel between the source and drain contacts via the field effect. The term "enhancement mode" refers to the increase of conductivity with increase in oxide field that adds carriers to the channel, also referred to as the inversion layer. The channel can contain electrons (called an nMOSFET or nMOS), or holes (called a pMOSFET or pMOS), opposite in type to the substrate, so nMOS is made with a p-type substrate, and pMOS with an n-type substrate (see article on semiconductor devices). In the less common depletion mode MOSFET, detailed later on, the channel consists of carriers in a surface impurity layer of opposite type to the substrate, and conductivity is decreased by application of a field that depletes carriers from this surface layer. The "metal" in the name MOSFET is now often a misnomer because the previously metal gate material is now often a layer of polysilicon (polycrystalline silicon). Aluminium had been the gate material until the mid-1970s, when polysilicon became dominant, due to its capability to form self-aligned gates. Metallic gates are regaining popularity, since it is difficult to increase the speed of operation of transistors without metal gates.  Likewise, the "oxide" in the name can be a misnomer, as different dielectric materials are used with the aim of obtaining strong channels with smaller applied voltages.  An insulated-gate field-effect transistor or IGFET is a related term almost synonymous with MOSFET. The term may be more inclusive, since many "MOSFETs" use a gate that is not metal, and a gate insulator that is not oxide. Another synonym is MISFET for metal–insulator–semiconductor FET.



Circuit symbols :


A variety of symbols are used for the MOSFET. The basic design is generally a line for the channel with the source and drain leaving it at right angles and then bending back at right angles into the same direction as the channel. Sometimes three line segments are used for enhancement mode and a solid line for depletion mode (see depletion and enhancement modes). Another line is drawn parallel to the channel for the gate.  The "bulk" or "body" connection, if shown, is shown connected to the back of the channel with an arrow indicating pMOS or nMOS. Arrows always point from P to N, so an NMOS (N-channel in P-well or P-substrate) has the arrow pointing in (from the bulk to the channel). If the bulk is connected to the source (as is generally the case with discrete devices) it is sometimes angled to meet up with the source leaving the transistor. If the bulk is not shown (as is often the case in IC design as they are generally common bulk) an inversion symbol is sometimes used to indicate PMOS, alternatively an arrow on the source may be used in the same way as for bipolar transistors (out for nMOS, in for pMOS).  Comparison of enhancement-mode and depletion-mode MOSFET symbols, along with JFET symbols. The orientation of the symbols, (most significantly the position of source relative to drain) is such that more positive voltages appear higher on the page than less positive voltages, implying current flowing "down" 






MOSFET  : 

Metal–oxide–semiconductor structure .The traditional metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) structure is obtained by growing a layer of silicon dioxide (SiO2) on top of a silicon substrate and depositing a layer of metal or polycrystalline silicon (the latter is commonly used). As the silicon dioxide is a dielectric material, its structure is equivalent to a planar capacitor, with one of the electrodes replaced by a semiconductor.  When a voltage is applied across a MOS structure, it modifies the distribution of charges in the semiconductor. If we consider a p-type semiconductor (with {\displaystyle N_{A}} N_{A} the density of acceptors, p the density of holes; p = NA in neutral bulk), a positive voltage, {\displaystyle V_{GB}} V_{GB}, from gate to body (see figure) creates a depletion layer by forcing the positively charged holes away from the gate-insulator/semiconductor interface, leaving exposed a carrier-free region of immobile, negatively charged acceptor ions (see doping (semiconductor)). If {\displaystyle V_{GB}} V_{GB} is high enough, a high concentration of negative charge carriers forms in an inversion layer located in a thin layer next to the interface between the semiconductor and the insulator. Unlike the MOSFET, where the inversion layer electrons are supplied rapidly from the source/drain electrodes, in the MOS capacitor they are produced much more slowly by thermal generation through carrier generation and recombination centers in the depletion region. Conventionally, the gate voltage at which the volume density of electrons in the inversion layer is the same as the volume density of holes in the body is called the threshold voltage. When the voltage between transistor gate and source (VGS) exceeds the threshold voltage (Vth), it is known as overdrive voltage.